## Introduction

An element-wise mean refers to calculating the average value for each individual element in an array. It differs from a traditional mean or average, which calculates the overall average value of an entire array.

In this tutorial, we will learn how to get the element-wise mean of a numpy array in python.

## Using Numpy mean()

### Example with 1D arrays

Let's consider the following three arrays:

`import numpy as np`

`A1 = np.array([10, 40, 10, 1])`

`A2 = np.array([50, 10, 15, 1])`

`A3 = np.array([30, 10, 40, 1])`

Please be aware that all arrays possess identical dimensions here.

To calculate the element-wise mean of a numpy array in python, we can use the mean() function from the NumPy library:

`np.mean([A1, A2, A3], axis=0)`

Note that the axis parameter allows us to specify which axis we want to calculate the mean along. By default, it is set to None, which means the function will calculate the mean of the flattened array (the entire array).

If we have a multidimensional array, we can specify the axis as 0 for calculating the mean along the columns, and 1 for calculating along the rows.

Output:

`array([30. , 20. , 21.66666667, 1. ])`

As we can see, the output is an array with each element having its own value.

### Example with 2D arrays

`import numpy as np`

`A1 = np.array( [ [10, 40],[ 10, 1] ] )`

`A2 = np.array( [ [50, 10],[ 15, 1] ] )`

`A3 = np.array( [ [30, 10],[ 40, 1] ] )`

Output A1:

`array([[10, 40],`

`[10, 1]])`

Output A2:

`array([[50, 10],`

`[15, 1]])`

Output A3:

`array([[30, 10],`

`[40, 1]])`

Then

`np.mean([A1, A2, A3], axis=0)`

gives

`array([[30. , 20. ],`

`[21.66666667, 1. ]])`

## Using broadcasting

A more efficient approach for calculating the mean across multiple arrays is to utilize NumPy broadcasting.

NumPy broadcasting allows for operations to be applied to arrays with different dimensions. This makes it easier and faster to perform element-wise operations on large arrays.

For example:

`import numpy as np`

`A1 = np.array([10, 40, 10, 1])`

`A2 = np.array([50, 10, 15, 1])`

`A3 = np.array([30, 10, 40, 1])`

with broadcasting

`( A1 + A2 + A3 ) / 3`

also returns:

`array([30. , 20. , 21.66666667, 1. ])`

Please note that we divided by 3 in this case, as there are 3 arrays involved.

## Additional features

### Rounding

There are a few different rounding methods available in numpy, each serving a specific purpose. The most commonly used ones are `np.around()`

, `np.floor()`

, `np.ceil()`

and `np.trunc()`

. For example:

`R = np.mean([A1, A2, A3], axis=0)`

`np.around(R,2)`

Output:

`array([[30. , 20. ],`

`[21.67, 1. ]])`

### Other statistical tools

`import numpy as np`

`A1 = np.array([10, 40, 10, 1])`

`A2 = np.array([50, 10, 15, 1])`

`A3 = np.array([30, 10, 40, 1])`

Getting maximum value element-wise

`np.max([a, b, c], axis=0)`

Output

`array([50, 20, 40])`

Getting minimum value element-wise

`np.min([a, b, c], axis=0)`

Output

`array([10, 20, 20])`

Getting standard deviation value element-wise

`np.std([a, b, c], axis=0)`

Output

`array([16.32993162, 0. , 8.16496581])`

## References

Links | Site |
---|---|

numpy.mean | numpy.org |

Broadcasting | numpy.org |

How to round all the elements of a matrix with numpy in python ? | en.moonbooks.org |

How to generate a matrix of random floats with numpy ? | en.moonbooks.org |